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Παγκόσμια Ακραία Καιρικά Φαινόμενα


Winter Weather

Significant solar output which is expected to continue agitated the January 31 - February 2, 2011 North American winter storm with direct damages estimated at US$1 billion, and Cyclone Yasi as well as other rainfall events over Australia resulting in extreme flooding, damages upwards of A$5 billion, and loss of life.


  • Over 300 people were killed from April 25 to 28, 2011 during the 2011 Super Outbreak in Southeastern United States after 334 confirmed tornadoes ravaged over 10 US states. April 27 was the deadliest tornado day in the United States since the 1925 "Tri-State" outbreak, which produced the infamous Tri-State Tornado. It is also the costliest tornado outbreak in US history, with damages possibly over $10 billion.
  • The May 21-27, 2011 tornado outbreak occurs in Midwest United States, killing well over 170 people when 180 confirmed tornadoes touched down in seven days. One extremely powerful tornado ravaged Joplin, Missouri and contributed to most of the deaths. Costs for repairing are between $4-7 billion.


The August 24, 2011 Toronto Severe Thunderstorm formed because of humid weather, then hit a large portion of Southern Ontario, including the Greater Toronto Area on the evening of August 24, 2011, and lasted for nearly one hour. Severe Thunderstorm watches and Tornado watches were issued in the region on August 24, hours before the storm hit. The damage was minimal, but significant, and this storm was one of the worst weather events in Ontario in the 21st century, along with the August 20, 2009 Southern Ontario Thunderstorm/Tornado Outbreak, and the January 31 - February 2, 2011 North American winter storm on February 1-2, 2011.


Winter Weather

  • Early January 2010- temperatures dip well below normal and snowfall is witnessed in the upper reaches of Himachal, Pradesh, and the Kashmir valley. Normal life was disturbed for the fourth consecutive day and over 125 deaths were reported from across the country as a result of the cold.
  • Early January 2010 - A High Pressure system near Greenland resulting from a fluctuation in the North Atlantic Oscillation blocks the normal West to East flow of weather, driving Arctic Air unusually far south, resulting in record low temperatures in almost every state east of the Rocky Mountain continental divide. Snow and sleet were reported as far south as Ocala/Tampa, FL, and precipitating freezing rain as far south as Sanford, FL. Temperatures below freezing extended as far south as Miami, FL, for the first time in over 20 years, resulting in billions in crop and citrus losses. More notable than the strength of the event is the duration, with some locations in FL seeing 10-12 days of consecutive days with low temperatures below freezing, breaking records for such events.


Dust Storm

The east coast of Australia experienced its biggest dust storm to date affecting millions and shutting down transport.

Heat waves

  • The late January to early February 2009 southeastern Australia heat wave caused record high temperatures in most of the southeastern states in Australia.
  • The August 2009 Argentine winter heat wave was a period of exceptionally hot weather that arrived at the end of August 2009 in the South American country of Argentina


  • The Black Saturday 2009 fires in Victoria, Australia resulted in the deaths of 173 people.



  • Throughout the month of August, Ireland experienced rainfall totaling multiples of the average for the month. Flooding was widespread throughout the island throughout the entire month, causing major disruptions to travel, infrastructure and forcing many events to be canceled. Worst affected were Westlink) was under six meteres of water at one stage.

Tropical cyclones

  • Cyclone Gene caused severe flooding in Fiji which killed eight people and caused $35 million (USD) in damages.
  • Cyclone Ivan killed 93 people and left 176 others missing in Madagascar after making landfall on February 17 at peak intensity.
  • Cyclone Jokwe, a small but intense cyclone, killed at least 16 people in Mozambique after making landfall with winds of 120 mph (195 km/h).
  • Typhoon Neogrui made landfall in southern China on April 19, becoming the earliest typhoon to make landfall in mainland China. The storm killed three people, left 40 fishermen missing, and caused $58 million (USD) in damages.
  • Cyclone Nargis struck the Irrawaddy Delta in southern Myanmar on May 2, killing an estimated 140,000 people and causing $10 billion (USD) in damages.
  • Tropical Storm Halong made landfall in the Philippines on May 17, killing 66 people and causing $94 million (USD) in damages.
  • Typhoon Fengshen killed nearly 1,400 people in the Philippines, nearly 800 of which were killed after a ferry capsized near the center of the typhoon, and caused $480 million (USD) in damages.
  • Heavy rains from Tropical Storm Kammuri killed at least 140 people in Vietnam.
  • Typhoon Hagupit killed 67 people and left 22 others missing in China and Vietnam. The storm also caused an estimated $3 billion (USD) in damages.
  • Severe flooding triggered by the remnants of Deep Depression ARB 02 killed over 180 people and caused $1 billion in damages in mid-October.
  • In September Hurricane Ike hit Texas making it the most costiest hurricane in Texas.
  • In late-November, Cyclone Nisha produced torrential rains over southern India and Sri Lanka which killed 204 people and caused $800 million in damages.


  • The 2008 Super Tuesday tornado outbreak was a deadly tornado outbreak affecting the Southern United States and the lower Ohio Valley from February 5 to February 6, 2008. With more than 80 confirmed tornados and 58 deaths, the outbreak was the deadliest in the U.S. since the May 31, 1985 outbreak that killed 76 across Ohio and Pennsylvania.

A Supercell formed over Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania around August 10, 2008. It produced many tornadoes and big hail. Tornadoes actually touched down in East Greenwich, NJ, and in Sussex County, NJ, and one almost touched down in Mullica Hill, NJ, which hadn't gotten a tornado in about 50-60 years.


  • Wildfires in California kill eight people and burn over one million acres over a three month span from June to August.
  • An 11,000 acre wildfire destroys nearly 500 homes in southern California after burning for nearly a week during mid-November.

Winter weather

  • A large and powerful non-tropical cyclone in early January dropped over ten feet of snow over the Sierra Nevada Mountains and nearly ten inches of rain over lower elevation areas, leading to the deaths of 12 people.
  • The worst winter weather in China in nearly half a century kills 129 people and causes 151.65 billion yuan in damages during late January through early February.


  • A huge storm system, the February-March 2007 tornado outbreak, produced at least 31 tornadoes from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico, killing 10 in Alabama, 9 in Georgia and 1 in Missouri.
  • Record high temperatures were logged at 11 monitoring points in five Japanese prefectures on March 4, with three points recording summer-like temperatures of over 25 Β°C.
  • Ireland experiences its warmest April since records began; with average daytime maximum temperatures two to five degrees (Β°C) above average. At some stations, it has been the driest and sunniest April since records began there.
  • In mid June, flooding struck parts of Ulster in Ireland. After a long, relatively dry and warm time of weather lasting almost three months (temperatures up to 29 Β°C / 84 Β°F on 11 June), extreme thunderstorms caused flooding in Belfast, Omagh and Raphoe on 12 June. Some locations received more than the monthly amount in just 30 minutes.
  • The Southeast United States experienced record drought and temperatures during September. The drought was most severe in Alabama, Tennessee, North Carolina and Florida



  • In February, a massive mudslide buried the town of Guinsaugon on Leyte Island in the Philippines. The entire town of 1,400 people was buried by the mudslide, and in total at least 1,119 people were reported dead or missing.
  • In May, heavy flooding in northern Thailand has left over 130 people dead or missing. 51 people have been confirmed dead.
  • In June, heavy, record-setting rainfall in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States caused widespread flooding that led to at least 16 deaths. It was considered the heaviest flooding in the country since Hurricane Katrina.
  • The monsoon has so far left at least 574 people dead in India, as it began early and has remained unusually active.
  • In July, heavy rains caused widespread flooding that has killed at least 549 people in North Korea, while an additional 295 are still missing, forcing North Korea to appeal for help from South Korea. Flooding also killed 25 people in South Korea and 22 in Japan. A South Korean aid group has said that in actuality a phenomenal 58,000 were left dead or missing. There has been no more comment from the North Korean government.
  • In August, heavy flooding hit several portions of the country of Ethiopia, resulting in hundreds of deaths. Flooding devastated the city of Dire Dawa, Ethiopia killing 256 people and leaving an additional 300 missing. An additional 190 people have been killed in flooding in the southern part of the country. In total, about 900 people are feared dead in the flooding throughout the country.
  • In August, Monsoon flooding devastated a wide swath of land from western India through northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan. At least 417 people have been confirmed dead, and 200,000 people were evacuated in the Surat area. More flooding hit the Thar Desert late in the month, killing at least 135 people.

Tornadoes result in force-scale recalibration

  • Forty-four tornadoes touched down across Missouri on March 11-12, killing twelve people and injuring more than a hundred (Austin, K. (March 31, 2006) "Tornado force scale adjusted," Missourian News, The March 2006 tornado outbreak sequence had been, until 2007, the worst tornado storm in March, and was the largest two-day outbreak in history. At least 84 tornadoes touched down.
  • March 31, 2006 - more tornadoes in the U.S. midwest reported 30-60.
  • April 2, 2006 - The April 2, 2006 tornado outbreak killed a total of 28 people, mostly in Tennessee. Tornadoes and hail as big as softballs ripped through eight Midwestern states, killing at least 27 people, injuring scores and destroying hundreds of homes. In Tennessee, tornadoes killed 23 people, including an infant and a family of four. Severe thunderstorms, many producing tornadoes, also struck parts of Iowa, Kentucky, Arkansas, Missouri, Ohio, Illinois and Indiana. Strong wind was blamed or at least three deaths in Missouri. The weather service's Storm Prediction Center in Norman, Okla., said it had preliminary reports of 63 tornadoes. The worst damage occurred throughout the Tennessee Valley.
  • April 6-8, 2006 - The April 6-8, 2006 tornado outbreak killed a total of 13 people. Dozens of tornadoes in the U.S. Mid-central through Eastern states both days. According to The Weather Channel, the number of U.S. tornadoes in the first seven days of April came within 15% of the average number of tornadoes for April. Tennessee was again the area most affected by this outbreak.

Heat waves

  • From Julyβ??August, a major heat wave in the United States contributed to the deaths of at least 225 people, including 163 in California. The heat wave lingered in the Southern states until late in the month, when cooler temperatures finally arrived.

Tropical cyclones

  • In April, Cyclone Mala hit Myanmar (Burma) as a category 4-equivalent tropical cyclone, killing 22 people. It was the most intense named cyclone on record in the North Indian Ocean (although other unnamed storms were stronger).
  • In May, Typhoon Chanchu plowed through the Philippines and wreaked havoc through the South China Sea before hitting southeastern China. In total, 294 people were killed or are missing, most from several fishing boats that sunk off the coast of Vietnam.
  • In July, Typhoon Ewiniar killed at least 40 people in South Korea and China.
  • In July, Tropical Storm Bilis made landfall in China and killed a total of 625 people as it persisted inland for nearly a week after landfall.
  • In July, 92 people were killed or are missing after Typhoon Kaemi made landfall in China in nearly the same area as Bilis just a week earlier.
  • In August, Typhoon Prapiroon killed at least 80 people when it made landfall in southern China, affecting areas already devastated by the landfalls of Bilis and Kaemi just in the previous 3 weeks.
  • In August, Typhoon Saomai made landfall in China as a Category 4-equivalent tropical cyclone in China in the same area affected by Bilis, Kaemi, and Prapiroon just in the previous month. At least 441 people were killed by the storm.
  • In September, Typhoon Xangsane caused extensive damage to Metro Manila in the Philippines as well as Vietnam, leading to at least 279 deaths.
  • In November, Typhoon Durian caused widespread destruction in the central Philippines, killing over 1,200 people. It also impacted Vietnam, causing 81 deaths there.

Winter weather

  • In January, the coldest weather in decades, accompanied by heavy snowfall and high winds in areas, occurred throughout Russia, Eastern Europe, and Scandinavia, leaving hundreds of people dead. Snow fell throughout Europe, even as far south as the Greek Isles or the Portuguese sea resorts, with record-setting snowfall and near-record cold in many areas.



  • In July, widespread, devastating flooding in Maharashtra and Mumbai (caused by extremely heavy rainfall, 100 cm in one day in Mumbai), India killed at least 1,000 people and caused approximately US$3.5 billion in damage.
  • In October, 10 people were killed from widespread and record-setting rainfall throughout the Northeastern United States.


  • In descending order, the five years with the highest global average annual temperatures were 2005, 1998, 2002, 2003 and 2004, said Drew Shindell of the NASA institute in New York City on January 24, 2006. "I think it's even fair to say that the warmest... temperatures the world has experienced probably in the last million years."

Severe weather

  • In January, storm winds swept across northern Europe. They killed at least 13 people and left millions without electricity.
  • In November, a tornado in northern Kentucky and Evansville, Indiana, U.S. killed 26 people.

Tropical cyclones

  • In July, Hurricane Dennis killed 82 people in Haiti, Cuba, and the United States and destroyed at least 16,000 homes. Total damages amounted to US$3-5 billion.
  • In August, Hurricane Katrina caused catastrophic damage along the Gulf Coast of the United States, forcing the effective abandonment of southeastern Louisiana (including New Orleans) for up to 2 months and damaging oil wells that sent gas prices in the U.S. to an all-time record high. Katrina killed at least 1,836 people and caused at least $75 billion US in damages, making it one of the costliest natural disasters of all time.
  • In September, Hurricane Rita left 119 people dead along the U.S. Gulf Coast and caused $9.4 billion US in damage.
  • In September, Typhoon Talim caused extensive flooding and killed at least 145 people in Taiwan and southern China.
  • In September, Typhoon Damrey caused extensive flooding throughout Southeast Asia, killing 94 people in Vietnam, the Philippines, southern China, and Thailand, with its remnants killing an additional 51 from heavy flooding in Nepal.
  • In October, extensive flooding exacerbated by Hurricane Stan affected nearly the entirety of Central America and southern Mexico. The storm, combined with Stan, killed between 1,080 and 2,100 people in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Villages along the shores of Lake Atitlan in Guatemala and other areas throughout the country were completely destroyed
  • In October, Hurricane Wilma killed 62 people in Jamaica, Haiti, Mexico, Cuba, and the United States and at one point became the most intense Atlantic Basin hurricane on record and the second-fastest-intensifying tropical cyclone on record. Wilma caused $25 billion in damage, making it one of the costliest hurricanes on record.
  • In October, Tropical Storm Alpha killed 42 people in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and the Bahamas. It also broke the record for the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record.
  • In October, Tropical Storm 04B killed at least 100 people in eastern India from extensive flooding.
  • In November, Tropical Storm Gamma caused widespread flooding that killed 37 people in Honduras, Belize, and Saint Vincent.

2000 to 2004

  • August: Hurricane Charley makes landfall in southwest Florida, killing 13.
  • September: Hurricane Frances makes landfall in Florida. Hurricane Ivan landed near Gulf Shores, Alabama, near the Florida Panhandle. Hurricane Jeanne makes landfall in central Florida and kills 3,000 in Haiti.
  • December: A freak snowstorm hits the southernmost parts of Texas and Louisiana, dumping snow into regions that do not normally witness winter snowfall during the hours leading up to December 25 in what is called the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm.
  • August: A heat wave with temperatures as high as 42 degrees Celsius (108 degrees Fahrenheit) strikes Europe. Because summer temperatures in much of northern Europe rarely exceed 30 Β°C (86 Β°F), the area was unprepared for the disaster. The death toll of the heat wave has been estimated to exceed 10,000. In relation with the heat wave, wildfires killed 18 people in Portugal. See: European Heat Wave of 2003
  • September: Hurricane Isabel makes landfall on the United States, killing at least 40 people.
  • July-September: A heat wave occurs in the southern United States, breaking all-time high temperature records in various cities. See 2000 Southern United States heat wave.

1961 to 1999

  • October: Massive flooding hits the south central region of Texas from October 18 - 19, dumping approximately 30 inches of rainfall in that 48 hour time period and causing 32 deaths and US$1.5 billion in damage.
  • August: during the Terremoto Blanco (Spanish: White Earthquake) a cold front struck southern Chile causing temperatures to drop below -14Β°C followed by heavy snowfalls. It es estimated that in Magallanes Region 20% of the sheep livestock died and in Tierra del Fuego Province up to 80%.
  • March: The "storm of the century" slammed the east coast.
  • Summer: Severe flooding along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, worst flooding since 1927. See also Great Flood of 1993. In the southeast drought and heatwave throughout the summer, also the Carolinas saw the hottest month of July 1993.
  • August: Hurricane Andrew slammed Florida, formerly the costliest event until Hurricane Katrina.
  • August Hurricane Bob hit Long Island and New England as a Category 2 storm; this area rarely sees very strong Hurricanes.
  • October The 1991 Halloween Nor'easter hits New England as a Category 1 hurricane and causes $1 billion dollars in damage.
  • August: Hurricane Alicia pounded Texas, causing $5.1 billion in damage and killing 21 people.
  • January 19-22: A severe cold snap broke many records in the Southern U.S. and also forced President Ronald Reagan's inauguration to take place inside the Capitol.
  • January 17: Cold Sunday occurred.
  • Summer: A heatwave hit much of the United States, killing as many as 1,250 people in one of the deadliest heat waves in history.
  • July - August: Hurricane Allen, the most powerful Atlantic hurricane in that year's hurricane season, causes death and devastation throughout the Lesser Antilles, Haiti, the northeast coast of Jamaica, and the coasts of Texas and Louisiana. It also spawned numerous tornadoes in Texas, with one particularly powerful cyclonic system causing US$100 million in damage in the city of Austin.
  • Winter: one of the worst cold waves to hit America.
  • July: a stationary rainstorm in the Rocky Mountains caused a flash flood of the Big Thompson Canyon that killed 145 people and caused more than $40 million dollars in damage, including the destruction of parts of highway 34.
  • September: Hurricane Carla, which reached Category 5 levels of strength, hit the Texas coast as a Category 4 hurricane, thus becoming one of the strongest storms in United States history and the strongest hurricane to ever impact Texas. The damages from this hurricane totaled over US$2 billion (adjusted for inflation ca. 2005), but only ended up killing 43, thanks to massive evacuation efforts.

1899 to 1936

  • February-March: Record cold followed by rapid warming causes flooding across several northeastern states, killing 171 and leaving 430,000 homeless
  • April: The Tupelo-Gainesville tornado outbreak of tornadoes kills 436
  • July-August: A heat wave across the Midwest and Northeast U.S. claims 5,000 lives. Record temperatures from this event still stand across fifteen states.
  • April 12, highest wind gust directly measured at the Earth's surface, at 231 mph (372 km/h) were recorded at Mount Washington (New Hampshire)
  • Flooding along the lower Mississippi River claims estimated 250-1,000 lives, leaving 700,000 homeless.
  • Marble Bar in Western Australia experiences 160 consecutive days of maxima reaching or exceeding 37.8 Β°C (100 Β°F) from 31 October 1923 to 7 April 1924.
  • September 8: The Galveston Hurricane claims in excess of 8,000 lives
  • February 11-13: The Great Blizzard of 1899 occurred, causing heavy snowfall, which is uncommon to exceedingly rare, to fall in the South. Unusually low temperatures accompanied the blizzard.


  • The Great Hurricane of 1780.

1600s to 1850s

  • Little Ice Age
Source: Wikipedia